The most important elements of the draft agreement are the following: On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the „backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and sets out an alternative position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period. If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a „hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border arrangements and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was held on the 14th. It was published in November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286.
On the 22nd. In October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government took the first step in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to find the necessary support and announced his intention to call a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement Act; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament gave its consent to the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then finalised by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. On the 22nd. In October 2019, the House of Commons voted by 329 votes to 299 to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable he proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be suspended.   The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially titled the Agreement on the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, is a treaty between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK), signed on 24 January 2020, which sets out the conditions for the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 September. October 2019, and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and to appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019.
The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to let the United Kingdom link the Statute of the European Schools to the United Kingdom by the Convention and the accompanying rules for accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. until the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester.  The Northern Ireland Protocol, commonly referred to as the „Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland following the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contains a provision on a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Ministry`s renegotiation in 2019. The amendments adapt about 5% of the text.  The 599-page Withdrawal Agreement covers the following key areas: The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the Political Declaration by replacing the word „adequate” with „adequate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, Trade Fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the change excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the level playing field mechanism has moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration and the line in the Political Declaration that „the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted.  The United Kingdom has concluded similar agreements with the EEA-EFTA States (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and Switzerland. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes.
The Withdrawal Agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for an orderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transition period until 31 December 2020, during which the UK will remain in the Single Market to ensure smooth trade until a long-term relationship is agreed. If no agreement is reached by that date, the UK will leave the single market on 1 January 2021 without a trade agreement. A non-binding political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UK is closely linked to the Withdrawal Agreement. The Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration negotiated and signed in conjunction with the binding and broader Withdrawal Agreement in the context of the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), colloquially known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period. It argues that any goods or services lawfully placed on the market before leaving the Union may continue to be made available to consumers in the United Kingdom or in the Member States of the European Union (Articles 40 and 41). After an unprecedented vote out of 4. In December 2018, MPs ruled that the UK government had ignored Parliament for refusing to give Parliament all the legal advice it had received on the impact of its proposed withdrawal conditions.  The key point of the Recommendation concerned the legal effect of the „backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the UK with regard to the EU-UK customs border and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that had led to an end to the unrest in Northern Ireland – and in particular whether the UK would be safe, to be able to leave the EU in a practical sense, according to the proposed plans. .